Special Interest

Floor Care “How-To Pamphlet Series”
How To Finish FloorsHow To Wet MopHow To BuffHow To Carpet Extract
How To Scrub and Recoat FloorsHow To Spray and Buff FloorsHow To Strip A Floor

Carpet GlossaryFloor Care GlossaryPitt Plastics

Dilution Ratio Ounces/gallon U.S. Volume Equivalents Price/Gallon 1:8 1:12 1:64 1:256
1-to-4 32 One Gallon One Quart One Pint 2.00 .222 .54 .031 .008
1-to-10 12 4 quarts 2 pints 2 cups 3.00 .333 .231 .46 .012
1-to-12 10 8 pints 4 cups 16 oz 4.50 .50 .346 .069 .018
1-to-15 8 16 cups 32 oz 5.25 .583 .404 .081 .020
1-to-20 6 128 oz 5.75 .639 .442 .088 .022
6.50 .722 .500 .100 .025
1-to-32 4
7.00 .778 .538 .108 .027
1-to-40 3 Metric Volume Equivalents 7.75 .861 .596 .119 .030
1-to-50 2 1/2 3 teaspoons = 1tablespoon = 15ml 8.25 .917 .635 .127 .032
1-to-60 2 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup = 118ml 9.00 1.00 .692 1.38 .035
1-to-64 2 16 tablespoons = 1 cup = 237ml 9.50 1.056 .731 .146 .037
1-to-100 1 1 fluid oz = 2 tablespoons = 30ml 11.00 1.22 .846 .169 .043
8 fluid oz = 1 cup = 237ml 12.50 1.089 .062 .192 .049
1-to-128 1
16 fluid oz = 2 cups = 473ml
1-to-256 1/2 32 fluid oz = 4 cups = 946ml

Alkalinity Alkalinity is useful in removing acidic, fatty and oily soils. Soap and soap-based products are alkaline and perform well only in an alkaline medium. Detergent products can be formulated at any level of alkalinity, determined by the cleaning task to be performed.
Antistatic Agent A substance that reduces static electricity produced by friction. Friction causes fabric (especially man-made fabrics, such as nylon and polyester) to produce static electricity discharge.
Backing The various materials that comprise the back of a carpet which secures the face of the carpet pile. They include primary backing, which is frequently a woven or nonwoven polypropylene, a woven jute, or cotton duck on scatter rugs. Secondary backing is fabric (usually jute, woven or nonwoven polypropylene) laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce and increase dimensional stability. Construction yarns comprising chain warp, stuffer warp, and shot fill are interwoven with the face yarn during carpet formation and are the backings of woven carpets.
Bleeding Removal of color from carpet or other floor tile material. Some carpets may bleed with hot water. Floor tile (particularly asphalt) can bleed from an excessive concentration of stripper solution.
Brighteners Optical or fluorescent enhancers found in carpet cleaning products and fabric cleaners.
Broadloom Term of measurement that designates the width of a carpet.
Browning (Brown Out) A reaction that occurs in carpets when high pH solutions cause the carpet’s natural coloring (usually jute) to travel from the carpet backing to the fiber strand and discolor the carpet. Easily cured with de-browning product applications.
Butyl Cellosolve A trademark name for a water-soluble solvent frequently used in degreasing products. Actual name of slang term butyl.
Cut Pile The face of a carpet that has had the ends cut at the loops.
Digester An enzyme used to break down stains caused by food products and blood.
Dimensional Stability The tendency of a fabric to retain size and shape. A carpet receives additional dimensional stability from the secondary backing.
Dry Foam A detergent solution with a small amount of water that is mechanically worked into a carpet. The loose soil is removed by a vacuum after becoming encapsulated by the friable powders
Dry Rot A condition caused by an attack of microorganisms on fibers, textiles, carpets and other tearing and break down of carpet.
Filament A single continuous strand of fiber.
Gage (Gauge) The distance expressed in fractions of an inch between two needle points in carpet knitting or tufting.
Jute A natural cellulosic fiber made from certain plants of the linden family which grow in warm climates such as India and Bangladesh. Jute yarns are used in woven carpet construction as backing for the yarns and twines. Woven jute is used in tufted carpet as primary and secondary backing. The latter are similar to burlap fabrics.
Loop Pile Carpet style having a pile surface consisting of uncut loops of woven or tufted yarn. Also called round wire in woven carpet terminology.
Optical Brightener Optical brighteners take otherwise unseen reflected light and refract it in a way that allows the human eye to view it. This presents a higher gloss and protects the floor from damaging actinic UV radiation.
Pile Height The length of the extended tufts of a carpet, measured from the primary backing top surface to their tips.
Pile Density Refers to closeness of fibers in a carpet to each other. High density increases weight and quality.
Pile Setting A carpet cleaner’s term for the process of erecting damp, disheveled pile following shampooing or extracting, through the use of a pile brush or pile lifting machine.
Polyester A fiber-forming thermoplastic synthetic polymer used in some carpet that is essentially staple and spun yarn.
Pre-Spot Removal of stains before more extensive carpet cleaning.
Primary Backing The carrier fabric for the pile yarn of a carpet into which the yarn tufts have been inserted.
Rotary Bonnet Carpet Cleaning A carpet cleaning technique in which a detergent solution is worked into the carpet pile by a bonnet attached to a rotary buffing machine. Loosened and suspended soil is transferred to the bonnet. Drying is normally achieved in 60 minutes or less.
Sanitizer An agent that reduces the number of bacteria to a safe level, but does not completely eliminate them as judged by public health requirements. Usually used in food service
Soil Retardant A chemical finish applied to carpet and fabric surfaces which inhibits attachment to the soil fiber.
Traffic Lane High traffic areas that show worn or soiled lanes.
Traffic Lane Cleaner A heavy detergent compound used to clean high-traffic carpet areas.
Acrylic Type of polymer popular for floor finishes. Also, a man-made synthetic fiber used in spun yarn to resemble wool in carpet.
Adhesion A necessary component of a floor finish, which causes it to stick to the floor rather than peel, flake or powder.
Alkali A chemical substance with pH greater than 7 that reacts with and neutralizes an acid. Also called alkaline or base.
Alkalinity Alkalinity is useful in removing acidic, fatty and oily soils. Soap and soap-based products are alkaline and perform well only in an alkaline medium. Detergent products can be formulated at any level of alkalinity determined by the cleaning task to be performed.
Asphalt Tile A floor tile manufactured with a mixture of synthetic fibers, lime rock, mineral fillers and coloring. Asphalt is used to bind the materials together. Very porous.
Bird’s Eye Circular blemishes on a polymer or wax surface caused by bubbles solidifying during application. Usually caused by agitation of the floor finish during the application or by applying heavy coats of finish. Also known as “fish eyes.”
Bleeding Removal of color from carpet or other floor tile material by a liquid. Some carpets may bleed with hot water. Floor tile (particularly asphalt) can bleed from an excessive concentration of stripper solution.
Carnauba Natural polishing wax which is derived from the leaves of the carnauba palm tree in Brazil. Average yield per year from one tree is approximately four to five ounces
Ceramic Tile Clay tile with an impervious, usually glossy, layer on the surface.
Conductive Floors Special resilient tile that is designed to dissipate or prevent static electricity. Frequently used in computer rooms.
Epoxy A very hard synthetic thermosetting resin often used in floor finishes, paints, and sealers.
Fading Loss of color caused by actinic radiation such as sunlight, atmospheric gasses and cleaning or bleaching chemicals.
Fish Eyes See Bird’s Eyes.
Heeling Technique of applying pressure to the side of a floor machine to remove black shoe marks and persistent soil.
Leveling Agent Substance added to coating which allows it to flow evenly in application and to help prevent puddling.
Metal Interlock Detergent and water-resistant type of floor finish with a metal salt in the solution. Removable with ammonia strippers, usually zinc.
Neutral Cleaner Non-alkaline, non-acid cleaner. The pH of mild neutral cleaners may be as high as 9 and not contain harsh alkalis.
Neutralizer Chemical to change the pH of a surface so that residues will not interfere with floor coating adhesion.
Non-Volatile Matter Non-Volatile Matter percent is that acrylic (hardened and dried) which is left on the floor once the liquid carrying agent has left (evaporated).
Optical Brightener Optical brighteners take otherwise unseen reflected light and refract it in a way that allows the human eye to view it. This presents a higher gloss and protects the floor from damaging actinic UV radiation.
pH A simple chemical scale which expresses the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14. 7 is the neutral point. Numbers below 7 indicate acidity with 0 being 10 times more acidic than 1, 1 being 10 times more acidic than 2, etc. 0-3 is strongly acidic, 4-6 moderately acidic. Above 7 is the alkaline side. 8-10 is moderately alkaline, 11-14 is strongly alkaline. Alkalinity is 10 times greater at each full number rise along the scale.
Pitting Small craters on the surface of concrete and terrazzo floors which will grow in size, with traffic and chemical exposure, unless coated with a protective floor finish.
Plasticizer An ingredient added to wax, varnish, and polymer floor finish to make it flexible rather than brittle.
Polymer Emulsions Polymer materials that are chemically emulsified into a water base. When these formulations are applied to surfaces they form a smooth, continuous finish.
Powdering An unfortunate condition of polymer-type floor finish being removed from a floor in the form of fine, white dust. Usually caused by abrasion occurring from buffing,heavy traffic and inclement weather.
Re-Emulsification A chemical process that occurs when a film of floor finish has not completely dried and is re-liquified by a subsequent application of finish. It doesn’t appear until the floor has dried and then appears streaked or dull.
Resilient Tile Tile that will withstand shock without permanent damage; includes rubber, cork, asphalt, linoleum, vinyl, vinyl asbestos. This tile will give under impact and certain loads and then return to its original form after the load is removed.
Resins The basic solid content of gym and concrete floor finishes that are solvent-borne.
Sealer A coating designed to penetrate and provide the initial protection to a floor surface by filling in the tiny pores. Also, a product which prevents color bleeding.
Slip Coefficient A measurement of the angle of the point at which a person’s foot begins to slip on the James machine (an instrument used to test the static coefficient of friction of a surface). U.L. considers 0.5 or above as the safe limit.
Slurry A temporary suspension of insoluble solid or immiscible liquids in a carrier base. Usually refers to the suspension of dirt or the thick, dark, soapy mixture created when stripping a floor.
Spray Buff An intermediate floor care procedure which cleans, fills minor scratches, removes black marks and shines the wear areas of a floor. Utilizes a sprayed solution, a floor machine and a synthetic floor pad.
Terrazzo A non-resilient floor material composed of marble and Portland cement.
Urethane A synthetic resin, ethyl carbamate, used in protective coatings for wood, concrete and metal.
Volatile The part of a product that evaporates during drying.

It’s important to know a little bit about what can liners are actually made of, and how thicknesses are measured. That way you can determine which of the polyethylene resins and liner gauges will work best for your particular application.

Resin – The basic raw material from which can liners are made. There are 3 types of resins: Low Density, Linear Low Density and High Density Polyethylene.

Linear Low Density Polyethylene – This resin is highly puncture and tear resistant. These properties make this the best choice for applications where additional strength and stretch are required. Works well for waste with sharp or jagged edges.

High Density Polyethylene – Liners made from this resin are generally available in lower gauges, and are more temperature resistant.

Low Density Polyethylene – An older resin still used mainly in lower end utility liners. It has largely been replaced by Linear Low Density Polyethylene. Pitt Plastics does not use this resin in any of our can liners!

Post – Consumer and Post-Industrial Polyethylene- This is made from recycled post-consumer plastics such as milk jugs and industrial scraps. These are reprocessed and blended with other types of resins to produce new high quality liners.

Gauge – A term used to describe the thickness of a liner. Low density liners are measured in mils, while High Density liners are generally measured in microns.

Mil – Measurement based on one hundred thousandths of an inch (.000). For example, a .55 mil bag would be 55 thousandths of an inch thick. Common low density liners range from .37 to 1.8 mil in thickness.

Micron – Based on thousandth of a Millimeter (.000000). High Density liners usually range from 6 to 22 microns in thickness.

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